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Protein helps old blood age the brain of young mice

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Protein helps old blood age the brain of young mice

Old blood can prematurely age the brains of young mice, and scientists may now be closer to understanding how. A protein positioned in the cells that form a barrier between the brain and blood will be partly to blame, experiments on mice suggest.

If something comparable happens in humans, scientists say, methods for countering the protein might also keep the promise for treating age-related brain decline.

 

People Who Are Always Late Are More Successful, Says Science

 

The preliminary research, published online January 3 at bioRxiv.org, focused on a form of the protein called VCAM1, which interacts with immune cells in response to inflammation. As mice and humans age, levels of that protein circulating in the blood rise, Alzheimer researcher Tony Wyss-Coray at Stanford University and associates determined.

Protein helps old blood age the brain of young mice

After injecting young mice in the back of an eye fixed with plasma from old mice, the team determined that VCAM1 levels also rose in certain parts of the blood-brain barrier, a mesh of tightly woven cells that help to protect the mind from harmful factors inside the blood.

The young mice confirmed signs and symptoms of brain deterioration as well, consisting of inflammation and reduced birthrates of new nerve cells. Plasma from young mice had no such effects.

Interfering with VCAM1 may also assist save you the premature ageing of brains. Plasma from old mice didn’t have a strong effect when injected into younger mice genetically engineered to lack VCAM1 in certain blood-brain barrier cells.

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Nor did it have an effect on mice treated with antibodies that blocked the activity of VCAM1. Those antibodies also seemed to assist the brains of older mice that had aged evidently, the group discovered.

The outcomes suggest that anti-ageing treatments concentrated on particular elements of the blood-brain barrier may hold promise.

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Determining Rental Property Value: Guide for Landlords

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On paper running a real estate business seems straightforward. After all, all you have to do is ensure your expenses don’t exceed your rental income, right? Unfortunately, it’s rarely ever that simple. As a landlord, you have to strike a balance between making profits and keeping your rental rates low enough to attract tenants and to accurately do that you have to determine your rental property value. Here’s how:  

How to Determine Rental Property Value 

Property Type and Size

Evaluate your property’s features to get an accurate estimate of its worth on the market. A 3-bedroom single-family unit would be more expensive than a 2-bed apartment in a multi-unit complex, assuming they’re in the same neighborhood. Comparing the property cost with others can help owners define a more accurate figure on how much the rental investment is worth. 

 

This approach involves using the sales comparison method, where appraisers determine a rental’s value based on the price tag of similar properties. Most experts recommend using at least three properties to get a better picture, especially because finding an exact unit that matches your location, square feet, type, and amenities can be difficult. 

Property Condition

Consider how modern your property’s amenities and features are to calculate its value on the market. Another way real investors determine a rental’s value is by assessing its current condition and estimating how much it would cost to reconstruct it from scratch. The idea behind this assessment method, often referred to as the cost approach, is that investors the price of an existing property should match the cost of land, construction, and any depreciation. Ideally, property owners should not pay more for a property they can build for less. 

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This method is beneficial when landlords cannot compare their property type and size to recent sales, or in markets with well-defined construction costs, and it uses the formula:

Value of Property = Cost – Depreciation + Land Value

Rental Demand and Supply

Observe the local rental market closely to understand how current demand and supply affect your property’s worth. An accurate property valuation has to always consider the local market because location often plays a major role in determining the price of a rental. For instance, identical apartments in diverse neighborhoods can have different prices. On one hand, a three-bed and two-bath unit can cost up to $250,000 in a high-demand area with a low crime rate. However, an identical property in a less savory neighborhood could have a price tag of $180,000, which is why you should hire a knowledgeable rental property manager in Carroll County to guide you on the rental values in your area.

Seasonal Demand Fluctuations in Rental Properties

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High vs Off-Season

Plan your property purchases and sales around the calendar year to get the best results. Rental prices often follow a pattern that correlates with the seasons, allowing savvy investors to plan and take advantage of the cycle to maximize their profits. If you have some experience in real estate, most home searchers are most active in warmer weather, during the spring and summer seasons when house hunting is most convenient and coincides with the beginning of a new school year. Fall and winter months record less real estate activity, making properties cheaper as there are fewer potential renters. 

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Economic Factors

Use current trends to measure the potential value of your property. Aside from the seasonal fluctuations, rental prices can also vary from one year to the next based on the economy. For example, during the pandemic the economy slowed down, borrowing became expensive, and housing prices shot through the roof. As a result, predictions of cheaper housing in the off-season of the following years were still higher than projected estimates. Research market value to see options on how to increase property value so your rental stands out in any season. 

Tourist Destinations

Anticipate changes in rental property demand during tourist peak and off-season. This tip is especially useful for vacation rental owners who have to plan around the holidays when vacation spots are full. Coastal towns are more likely to experience an influx of guests when the weather is warmer and tourists are off to the beach. In contrast, rental properties near ski resorts see higher demand in winter when locals and visitors want to stay somewhere cozy. 

Conclusion 

Being able to accurately determine your rental property’s value can give you a competitive edge in the market. Knowing how much a property is worth allows investors to decide if a potential apartment is worth the trouble, and how much rental income they can earn from their investment. Comparing your property’s type and size to similar and recent sales is a great way to estimate its price, but you can also use its current condition and local rental trends. 

Consider how seasonal factors can affect rental property prices. The weather, economy, and tourist locations can easily influence occupancy rates, affecting your estimates in the long run. That’s why insightful investors also rely on the advice of experienced property managers to help them navigate rental property values. 

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A blog which focuses on business, Networth, Technology, Entrepreneurship, Self Improvement, Celebrities, Top Lists, Travelling, Health, and lifestyle. A source that provides you with each and every top piece of information about the world. We cover various different topics.

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